Human Interface Guidelines/The Laptop Experience/The Journal/lang-ko

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OLPC Human Interface Guidelines/The Laptop Experience/The Journal/lang-ko/title

"간직" 표식

일반적으로 파일을 다루는 데 이용되는 "열기" 미 "저장" 모델은 이 노트북에서 숨겨지고, 플로피 디스크 모양의 저장 아이콘도 없습니다. 그 대신, 무언가를 간직하는 의미의 훨씬 일반적인 표식이 이용됩니다. '저널'은 일차적으로 어린이가 수행한 활동들과 이러한 아이디어를 강화하기 위해 그녀가 보관하는 오브젝트들을 연대기적으로 보기 위한 기능을 제공합니다.

The traditional "open" and "save" model commonly used for files will fade into abstraction on the laptops, and with it the customary floppy disk icon, as not only will the laptops not have floppy drives, but most likely the children will never see one of these largely obsolete devices. Instead, a much more general notion of what it means to want to keep things prevails. Generally speaking, we keep things that we want to hold on to, and the rest just fades with time. Appropriately, the Journal's primary function as a time based view of the activities a child has done and the objects she's kept reinforces this idea.

우리들 대부분은 "일찍 그리고 자주 저장하기"의 중요성을 알고 있습니다; 우리 대부분은 그렇지 않을 경우의 결과를 잘 압니다. 이 노트북은 이러한 근심을 기술적으로 제거하는데, 자동적이고 누적적인 백업을 통해 어린이가 활동 그 자체에만 집중하도록 지원합니다. 이러한 누적적 백업은 주기적으로 진행되며, 범주 변경, 새로운 참가자 등 활동 이벤트 역시 자동 백업을 불러 일으킵니다. 다양한 유형의 편집 환경을 위해, 활동들은 시스템이 복사본을 유지하도록 하는 "keep-hints"를 정의할 수 있습니다. 가령, 그리기 활동은 "모두 선택" 후 "삭제" 샐행에 앞서 keep-hint를 발동할 수도 있습니다. 물론, 어린이 자신이 "저널에 저장" 버튼을 선택함으로써 keep-hint를 깨울 수도 있지만, 이러한 새로운 '활동으로부터 간직 표식'을 적절히 적용함으로써 그 필요성을 없앨 수가 있습니다.

Most of us recognize the "save early, save often" mantra; most of us have failed to live it and incurred the consequences. The laptops aim to eliminate constant concern for this type of technicality, making automatic and incremental backups and allowing the children to focus on the activity itself. These incremental backups will occur at regular time intervals, and activity events such as changes in scope, new participants, among others can trigger them as well. In order to cater to the needs of many types of editing environments, activities can also specify "keep-hints" which prompt the system to keep a copy. For instance, a drawing activity may trigger a keep-hint before executing an "erase" operation immediately preceded by a "select all". Of course, a child herself may choose to invoke a keep-hint by selecting the "keep in journal" button, but adequate adoption of this new notion of keeping from activities should virtually eliminate need for this.

파일과 연관된 오브젝트 모델에 기초하여, 간직된 '오브젝트' 각각은, 전형적으로 말해서, 그것을 만든 활동이 낳은 각각의 인스턴스입니다. 이것은 열기 행동을 이전 활동의 복구로 대체함으로써, 어느 한 활동 내에서 파일을 "열" 필요성을 없앱니다. 물론, 어린이는 "~으로 열기" 스타일의 기능을 통해, 다른 세트의 붓들과 더불어 그리기를 재개할 수도 있고, 다른 펜으로 에세이를 재개할 수도 있습니다. 그러나, 활동 인터페이스에서 "열기" 명령을 대체하는 것은 없습니다.

Based on the Object model associated with files, each kept Object is, technically speaking, a separate instance of the activity which created it. This eliminates the need to "open" a file from within an activity, replacing the act of opening with the act of resuming a previous activity instance. Of course, a child will have the option to resume a drawing with a different set of brushes, or resume an essay with a different pen, providing "open with" style functionality, but no substitute for an "open" command will exist within an activity's interface.

작아진 계층구조

일시적 구성

내재적 간직 아이디어와 더불어, 이 노트북은 구성 수단으로서의 계층적 파일 시스템을 활동과 이벤트의 일시적 목록과 저널 메타포로 대체함으로써 이를 극적으로 최소화했습니다. 이것은 자동 간직 행동을 극적으로 단순화시키는데, 왜냐하면, 이를 통해 새로 개시된 활동이 간직되어야 하는 특정 위치를 명시할 필요가 없어지기 때문입니다; 당연히, 이 새로이 시작된 활동은 저널의 최신 엔트리로 나타납니다.

Along with the idea of implicit keeping, the laptops will drastically minimize the hierarchical filesystem as a means for organization, replacing it with a temporally organized list of activities and events, furthering the Journal metaphor. This drastically simplifies the auto-keeping behavior, since it eliminates the need to specify a location in which a newly started activity should be kept; naturally, the newly started activity will appear as the most recent entry in the journal.

일시적 구성은 명시적 또는 계층적 방법이 없을 경우 자연스럽게 발생하는데, 최소한, 시간과 인간 간의 본질적 관계로 인해, 어떤 일이 "얼마나 오래 전에" 발생했는지에 대한 상대적 표식을 제공하기 때문입니다. 저널을 통해 거슬러 감으로써, 어린이는 그녀가 무엇을 만든 시기를 쉽게 찾을 수 있으며, 거기서 그녀는 정확히 그녀가 원하는 것을 검색, 걸러내기 또는 정렬하기로 찾을 수 있습니다.

Temporal organization functions naturally in the absence of explicit or hierarchical methods, since humankind's intrinsic relationship to time gives them, at the very least, a relative notion of "how long ago" something happened. By moving back through the Journal, a child can simply locate the period in time within which she knows she made something, and then employ additional use of searching, filtering, and sorting to pinpoint exactly what she's looking for.


이 노트북의 저장 공간이 협소하므로, 더 이상 저널에 추가할 수 없을 지도 모릅니다. 그러나, 그러한 경우는 폴오프 기능을 통해 줄일 수 있는데, 폴오프는 저널 컨텐츠를 정리함으로써, 새로운 엔트리를 위한 공간을 마련합니다. 이것은 가비지 수집과 디스크 공간늘리기의 결합으로 볼 수도 있습니다.

Due to the laptops' limitations in storage capacity, the potential exists for the Journal to contain so many entries that no more may be written. However, the frequency of such occurrences is limited by temporal falloff, which tidies up the Journal contents and keeps space available for new entries. One might think of this as an intelligent combination of garbage collection and disk defragmentation.

이것은 인간의 기억 용량을 직접 응용한 것입니다. 우리의 마음은, 일반적으로, 가장 최근의 사건들은 잘 기억하지만, 오래 전의 일은 그렇지 못합니다. 더우기, 이러한 기억 용량은 기하급수적 곡선을 그리는데, 최근 몇 분의 일은 매우 선명하게 기억하지만, 몇 시간 전은 약간 애매하고, 몇 달 전은 아주 흐릿합니다. 수년 전의 기억은 단편적으로만 남게 됩니다.

The driving principle here is that of temporal granularity, derived directly from our very capacity for human memory. Our minds, generally speaking, maintain a high level of granularity with respect to very recent events, but only a low granularity for events from several years ago. Moreover, this granularity tends to follow a logarithmic curve, where the past few minutes remain quite clear, the past few hours more blurry, and by last month quite vague. When we look years into the past, only specifically memorable events stand out in our minds.

이 노트북에서도 동일하게 원리가 적용됩니다. 제한된 메모리 용량으로 인해, 무엇을 기억 또는 간직하고, 무엇을 망각 또는 삭제할 지를 결정할 어떤 수단이 있어야만 합니다. 하나의 지능적인 알고리즘을 통해, 어린이들이 "잊혀진" 엔트리들을 식별하는 것을 도울 수 있습니다. 해당 엔트리가 얼마나 오래되었는지, 얼마나 자주 열어보았는지, 얼마니 최근에 다루었는지, 얼마나 오랫동안 다루었는지, 얼마나 많은 사람들과 더불어 다루었는지, 그것의 태그, 그리고 자동적으로 생성된 메타데이터들을 통해, 저널은 삭제되어야 할 엔트리들을 그녀에게 제시할 수 있습니다. 그녀는 그러한 아이템들을 살펴보고, 삭제나 보관 중에 하나를 선택할 수 있습니다.

On the laptops the policies are a bit more strict, but the principle remains the same. With a finite amount of memory, some means of managing what's remembered, or kept, and what's forgotten, or erased must exist. An intelligent algorithm will assist children in identifying "forgotten" entries. Taking into account how old an entry is, how many times she's viewed it, how recently she's worked on it, how many hours she's worked on it, how many people she's worked on it with, its tags, and even more forms of automatically generated metadata, the Journal can suggest to her those entries which it feels can be erased. She will then have the opportunity to review those items prior to their erasure, if she wishes, and can keep any she still feels attached to.

대용량 저장장치가 일반화된 지금에도 많은 이들이 하드 디스크의 용량을 다 채우고 있습니다. 오디오와 비디오 파일과 같은 멀티미디어 수집품을 제외하고, 이들 공간의 많은 부분이 우리가 기억하지도 못하고, 다시 열어보지도 않을 파일들오 채워져 있습니다. 이 노트북에서는 공간이 소중하며, 수년간 보관되어야 할 오브젝트와 엔트리들도 그러합니다. 일시적이고, 실험적이며, 복사물과 원하지 않는 파일들은 자연히 바닥으로 떨어지고, 아이들에게 중요한 것들만 보관됩니다.

In a time where gigabytes have become cheap, many of us still manage to fill our hard drives. Excepting the cases of multimedia collections of audio or video files, much of that space is consumed by files we either don't remember we ever made, or will never open again. On the laptops, where space is precious, so too will be the objects and entries that remain in the journal years down the road. The temporary, the experimental, the duplicate, and the unwanted files will naturally fall off the bottom, maintaining a browsable history of those that remain important to the children.

저널 엔트리


암묵적인 저널 엔트리가 가장 일반적입니다. 이것들은 아이가 노트북과 다양한 방식으로 상호 작용하는 결과로 나타나지만, 일반적으로 어느 한 활동에 참여할 때 발생합니다. 다른 암묵적 엔트리는 사직을 찍거나, 친구로부터 쪽지를 받거나, 웹에서 파일을 다운받을 때 나타납니다. 이러한 경우 모두에서, 저널 엔트리 그 자체는 그것을 창출한 이넵트에 관한 중요한 정보를 전달하는 기본적인 포멧을 가집니다. 가장 중요한 점은, 관련된 오브젝트 - 사진, 메시지, 그림, 스토리-가 엔트리 내에 임베드된다는 점입니다. 이것은 또한 이름, 작성 일자, 협동 참여자등과 같은 핵심 메타데이터를 포함합니다.

Implicit journal entries will be the most common. These appear as the result of many kinds of a child's interactions with her machine, but most commonly when engaging in an activity. Other implicit entries might appear when she takes a photo, or receives a note from a friend, or downloads a file from the Web. In all of these cases, the journal entry itself has a basic format which conveys important information about the event which created it. Most importantly, the associated Object - the photo, the message, the drawing, the story - becomes embedded within the entry. It also includes key metadata, such as its name, when it was made, and who collaborated on it.

저널 엔트리는 또한 그것과 소통할 수 있는 수단을 제공합니다.가령, 각각의 엔트리는 어린이가 향후 그것을 검색하는데 이용할 의미있는 관련어를 태그할 수 있는 설명 필드를 갖습니다. 이 필드는 활동 그 자체와 해당 엔트리에 관계된 모든 테그를 자동적으로 받습니다. 이 테그 필드에 더하여, 여러가지 버튼을 이용하여 오브젝트를 직접 조작할 수 있으며, 해당 활동을 재개하거나, 오브젝트를 클립보드에 보내거나, 친구에게 보내거나, 프린트하거나, 삭제할 수 있습니다.

The journal entry also provides some means to interact with it. For instance, each entry has a description field where a child can tag it with meaningful related words which will make searching for it in the future a breeze. This field will automatically receive any tags that the activity itself associates with the entry. In addition to this tag field, several buttons will allow direct manipulation of the Object, making it possible to resume the activity, place the Object on the clipboard, send it to a friend, print it, or erase it, among others.


암묵적인 것 외에도, 어린이들은 그들 자신의 여러 종류 엔트리를 만들 수 있습니다. 그것들 가운데 하나가 '노트'인데, 가장 단순한 형태입니다. 전통적인 저널로부터 큐를 받으며, 노트 엔트리는 단순히 커다란 텍스트 엔트리 필드를 제공합니다. 이 자유형 엔트리를 통해, 어린이는 실제 저널에서와 마찬가지로, 그들의 일상을 일기로 적을 수 있습니다. 이러한 개인화된 레이어를 제공함으로써, 저널이 단순히 파일 시스템이 아니라, 어린이가 노트북 그리고 친구들과 함께한 이벤트와 소통의 실제 기록으로 역할하게 합니다.

In addition to implicit ones, children have the opportunity to create several special kinds of entries on their own. The first of these, the Note, has the simplest form. Taking a cue from a traditional journal, a Note entry simply provides a large text entry field. This freeform entry allows the children to write down short descriptions of their day to day experiences, just as one would within a real journal. Providing this layer of personalized entries further emphasizes the idea that the Journal really does provide more than a filesystem, as an actual record of events and interactions of the children with the laptop and with their peers.

실제로, 어린이는 이 기능을 자신을 위한 메모장으로 이용할 수 있습니다. 이러한 예에서, 엔트리 내의 단순한 컨트롤로 해당 엔트리를 "할 일" 노트로 바꿀 수 있습니다. '할 일' 엔트리로서, 이것은 그것의 완성 상태를 나타내는 체크박스를 가집니다. 이러한 엔트리만 보여주도록 저널을 걸러내기 함으로써, 조직화 기술을 배우는 또 다른 유용한 도구가 됩니다.

In practice, children may also use this feature as a means of jotting down a note to themselves - a reminder. In these instances, a simple control within the entry will turn the note into a "to-do" note. As a to-do entry, it will have a checkbox indicating its completion status. By filtering the Journal to show only these entries, it doubles as a basic to-do list, providing another useful tool for learning organizational skills.


클리핑은 저널에서 약간 상이한 목적으로 이용됩니다. 노트와 유사하게. 어린이는 어디서나, 어느 활동 속에서나 클리핑을 만들 수 있습니다. 클립보드로 복사라는 아이디어의 하나로, 클리핑은 친구와의 채팅 중 일부 텍스트나 웹 페이지의 이미지 등 어떤 선택물을 저널 속으로 바로 복사해 넣을 수 있습니다. 이로써, 미래의 참조를 위해 간직하고픈 모든 것의 기록을 쉽고 편리하게 참고할 수 있습니다: 전화번호, 링크, 비밀 번호 등.

Clippings serve a slightly different purpose in the journal. Similar in spirit to notes, a child can create a clipping from anywhere, or from within any activity on their laptop. As an extension of the copy to clipboard idea, clippings copy a selection - some text from a chat session with a friend, an image from a web page, etc. - directly to the journal for safekeeping. This provides a quick and easy way to keep a quick record of anything that you might want to keep around for future reference: a phone number, a link, a password, etc.


저널의 일시적 측면을 좀 더 살펴보면, '이벤트'는 "미래의" 저널 엔트리처럼 역할 합니다. 해당 이벤트의 이름, 간략한 설명 그리고 시간을 제공함으로써, 이러한 저널 엔트리들은 기초적인 계획 시스템이 됩니다. 해당 엔트리 내의 어느 한 컨트롤 역시 소리 경고를 가능하게 하므로, 이벤트가 알람으로 역할하게 할 수도 있습니다. 이벤트는 또한 이 노트북의 일부 암묵적 액션들과 밀접하게 연결됩니다. 가령, 한 어린이가 방과 후 친구와 더불어 포토 사파리에 가길 원한다면, 수업 중에 친구에게 3:00에 포토 사파리 활동에 가자는 초대장을 보낼 수 있습니다. 친구는 평상시와 마찬가지로 초대장을 받지만, 수락과 동시에 저널의 이벤트 엔트리를 받는데, 예정된 활동에 관한 언급이 포함됩니다. 3:00가 되면, 두 명 모두 그들의 예정된 이벤트에 관한 고지를 받으며, 밖에서 만나 그 활동을 시작하게 됩니다.

Taking the temporal aspect of the Journal one step further, Events act like "future" journal entries. By specifying a name for the event, a brief description, and a time, these Journal entries serve as a basic planning system. A control within the entry also enables an audible alert, so that Events can act as alarms. Events also tie in closely with some implicit actions of the laptops. For instance, a child might want to go on a photo safari with her friend after school. While still in class, she sends him an invitation to join a photo capture activity, but schedules a time of 3:00. He then receives an invitation, as usual, but upon accepting it receives an Event entry in the journal, with a reference to the scheduled activity, instead of immediately entering it. When 3:00 arrives, both children receive notifications that their scheduled event is about to start, and join each other both physically outside and virtually in the referenced capture activity.

Indicador de Progreso

많은 경우, 엔트리는 한 번 나타나지만, 해당 엔트리의 요구되는 결과는 즉각적이지 않습니다. 가령, 웹에서 파일을 다운로드 받을 때나, 친구로부터 파일을 받을 때, 서버로부터 파일을 재 저장할 때, 또는 비디오나 오디오 데이터와 같은 큰 오브젝트를 저장할 때 발생할 수도 있습니다. 이 모든 프로세스들은 일정한 시간을 요구하며, 필요하다면, 저널 엔트리가 진행 상태를 알려줍니다. 다운로드, 전송 또는 과제가 시작될 때, 그 사실을 알려주기 위해 저널 속에 엔트리가 만들어 집니다.이 엔트리는 완료까지의 예정 시간을 알리는 진행 막대를 포함합니다; 완료되면, 표준 엔트리로 돌아갑니다. 이로써 저널은 진행 상황을 파악하는 일관적인 장소이며, 전송 중단 및 재개를 위한 손쉬운 수단이고, 특히 연결이 간간이 이뤄지는 지역에서 유용합�Η닏�.

In many cases, entries will appear at one point in time but the desired result of the entry won't be immediate. This might occur, for instance, when downloading a file from the Web, receiving a file from a friend, restoring a file from the server, or saving a large Object such as video or audio data. All of these processes take some non-trivial length of time, and so when necessary, Journal entries will provide a progress indicator stage. When the download, transfer, or task begins an entry will be created in the journal to indicate that. This entry will include a progress bar with estimated time until completion; once completed, it will transition to a standard entry. This makes the Journal a consistent place to keep track of progress, and also provides an easy means to pause and resume transfers, which will prove extremely useful when in areas with intermittent connectivity.

메타데이터의 위력

저널의 평면성에도 불구하고, 태깅 구조 덕분에 과거 엔트리를 검색하는 것은 어렵지 않습니다. 각 엔트리에 관련 설명을 부착함으로서, 어느 한 엔트리를 검색하는 것은 그것을 설명하는 것 만큼 쉽습니다. 이러한 설명들은 두 가지 방식으로 확장되는데, 태깅과 메타데이터 입니다. 전자는 어린이들이 그들의 자료들을 설명하고 ㄱ조직하는 직선적 방법이며, 후자는 활동이 관련 데이터 및 태그와 '활동이 창출하는 저널 엔트리'를 연관짓는 기술적 수단을 제공합니다.

Despite the flatness of the Journal, finding past entries shouldn't prove difficult thanks to a tagging structure built from the ground up for the laptops. By associating relevant descriptive words with each journal entry, searching for an entry becomes as easy as describing it. These descriptions will manifest in two ways, tagging and metadata. The former provide a straightforward manner for the children to describe and organize their stuff, while the latter provides a more technical means by which activities can associate relevant data and tags with all Journal entries they create.


태깅은 이 노트북에서 모든 종류의 데이터와 활동을 위한 기본적인 프로세스입니다. 다행히도, 아이들은 그들이 보고 느기는 세상과 사물을 설명하려는 본능적 성향을 가지고 있습니다. 따라서, 아이들은 그들이 그린 그림과, 그들이 쓴 스토리, 또는 작곡한 음악을 설명하는 것을 즐기며, 그 과정에서 새로운 단어들을 배울 수 있습니다. 물론, 이러한 성향은 나이가 들어가더라도 계속 유지될 것입니다.

Tagging will become a fundamental process for all types of data and activities on the laptops. Fortunately, children have a natural inclination to describe their world and the things they see and do. This actually aids kids in learning, as they will enjoy describing the drawing they've made, the stories they've written, or the composition they produced, and can learn new vocabulary in doing so. Of course, the kid-like desire to describe things doesn't detract from the usefulness of this tag-based system as they grow older.

이 시스템의 불가분한 부분으로써, 태깅 인터페이스는 다양한 장소에서 노출됩니다. 물론, 언급한 바와 같이, 각 저널 엔트리는 태그 필드를 가집니다. 마찬가지로, 각각의 오픈 활동 인스턴스는 이름 필드 옆에 태그 필드를 가짐으로써, 특정한 활동 또는 오브젝트에 이름을 붙이는 행동이 그들의 마음 속에서 설명하는 것과 관련을 갖게 됩니다. 부가적으로, 활동들은 해당 어린이가 찍은 사진을 위한 설명 필드와 같이, 향후 발행할 태깅을 위한 인터페이스 내의 특정 공간을 제공할 수 있습니다.

As such an integral part of the system, the tagging interface will be exposed in various places. Of course, as mentioned, each journal entry will have a field for tags. Likewise, each open activity instance will have a tag field adjacent to its name field, so that the act of naming a particular activity or Object becomes associated with describing it in their minds. Additionally, activities could offer specific places within the interface for tagging to occur, such as in the description field for a photo the child just took.


메타데이터는 태깅 모델에 추가적인 정교함을 제공합니다. 이것을 데이터에 대한 데이터로 생각하기 보다는 태그를 태깅하는 것으로 생각하십시오. 노트북 사으이 메타데이터는 태그 그 자체가 키로 구성된 기본적인 테깅 모델의 확장입니다; value pair. 또는, 태그를 null key의 메타데이터 쌍으로 볼 수도 있습니다. 어떤 식으로 생각하든, 태그의 이 범주는 데이터를 조직하고 분류할 때 갈역한 함축을 제공합니다.

Metadata adds an additional level of sophistication to the tagging model. Rather than thinking of this as data about data, consider it a means of tagging tags. Metadata on the laptops will be an extension of the basic tagging model where the tag itself consists of a key:value pair. Or, you could simply consider a tag to be a metadata pair with a null key. Whichever way you look at it, this categorization of tags has powerful implications when it comes to organizing and categorizing data.

저널 그 자체는 나타날 때, 엔트리에 다양한 유용한 메타데이터 테그를 할당합니다. 그 가운데는 해당 엔트리의 신간, 공유 범주, 해당 활동에의 참가자, 그 크기 등입니다. 저널은 또한 어린이가 특정 엔트리를 본 횟수, 갱신 횟수 등과 같은 다른 유용한 메타데이터의 트랙을 유지합니다. 마찬가지로, 활동은 단순한 테그보다는 메타데이터와 주로 소통합니다. 이로써, 활동은 그것이 창출하는 오브젝트에 의미를 부여하는 특정 인수들, 또는 키,를 정의하고, 값을 동적으로 할당할 수 있습니다. 예를 들면, 작곡 활동에서, 가능한 키로는, 분당 비트 수, 해당 음악이 작성된 키, 트랙 길이, 그리고 작곡자 등이 있습니다. 저널 내에서의 메타데이터가 제공하는 유용성을 폭넓게 이해하려면 '분류하기' 섹션을 참조하시기 바랍니다.

The Journal itself assigns a variety of useful metadata tags to entries as they appear. These include the time of the entry, it's sharing scope, who participated in the activity, its size, and more. The Journal will also keep track of other useful metadata, such as the number of times a child views a particular entry, the number of revisions an entry has gone through, etc. Likewise, activities will deal primarily with metadata rather than simple tags. This allows activities to define specific parameters, or keys, that make sense for the Objects they produce, and then assign values to those dynamically. In a music composition activity, for instance, potential keys might be beats per minute, the key the composition is written in, the length of the track, and the composer, among others. See the sorting section to fully understand the usefulness of this metadata within the Journal.

Of course, since tags and metadata both follow a very basic format, children can assign their own metadata associations with Journal entries once they have enough experience simply by typing key:value pairs into the description field.

강력한 검색, 걸러내기 및 정렬하기


The search field provides the most direct means of locating a particular Journal entry, returning instant results as the search is typed, and offering auto-completion for popular tags. In order to find anything on their laptop, a child need merely describe it, since the tags she's associated with it already appear within its description field. Her searches also apply to the metadata associated with the entry by either the Journal or the activity that created it, making it even easier to find things.

For simplicity, the search field will employ OR logic to all terms entered, which ensures the least amount of confusion when used by children who don't yet understand boolean logic. As such, a search for "orange cat" will return a list of everything orange and also every cat. Of course, any entries tagged with both orange and with cat will match more strongly, and will automatically filter to the top of the results. However, in keeping with a primary goal of the laptops, this won't eliminate the possibility for more complex boolean searches. Full support for AND, OR, NOT, and parenthetical grouping of terms will be built into the search engine, providing advanced functionality for those who desire to enter more complex queries.

Since the laptops will find themselves in the hands of many children, additional modifications to the search algorithm will assist them as they grow. The youngest children who receive them will still be learning how to spell, and those that can may still require some time to learn typing skills. For these reasons, a fuzzy match algorithm will assist the children, returning some results even when the corresponding tags don't match what they typed exactly. This algorithm is adaptive, and so as they become more comfortable with their language and with using the technology, the extent of the fuzziness and therefore the number of fuzzy results returned will lessen, preventing false matches from aggravating more advanced users. Several other kinds of fuzziness could also be applied, though such possibilities are only speculation at this point. For instance, fuzzy matches based on thesaurus entries could turn up items tagged with "funny" even when the child searches for "humorous". Likewise, translation fuzziness could return an entry tagged with "cat", even though the child searched for "gato." These advanced fuzziness algorithms could prove invaluable in a laptop community that has been built with sharing and collaboration in mind.


Support for basic filtering also exists within the journal. The search and filter functionality appear together in the toolbar, since searching could also be interpreted as filtering by tags. Additionally, their appearance together allows an easy method for the children to visually construct their query in a sentence-like format, with relevant parts of their query displayed as icons — just as those within the entries themselves — for visual reinforcement.

Several fundamental filters exist. First and foremost, there is an advanced date filter, which can only be expected in a Journal organized temporally by default. This control will present a timeline to the child, with visual indication over the length of the timeline of the number of entries present in the Journal from any given point in time. By expanding and contracting the selected area she can select anything from a single day to all time, and by sliding the selection through time, she can filter out all entries that don't lie within the specified range. Other basic filters include the activity that the entry represent, and the activity participants.

Other available filters allow children to locate specific kinds of entries. For instance, a child may want to view all entries that have been tagged by the Journal for possible removal when memory becomes low. They may also want to see all their notes, or to-dos, or events. They could also show only starred items, or in progress items, and more. The system will provide adequate flexibility for finding anything in the Journal nearly instantaneously.


Whereas searching and filtering provide a means of defining what entries get shown in the list of results, sorting determines how those entries are organized. A unique approach to sorting on the laptops makes the metadata associated with entries even more valuable. The sort bar, which the child can expand in order to more precisely control their view of the journal, offers a popup menu from which a number of options such as date, title, activity, size, participants, and others may be chosen. In addition to this fixed list, a dynamic list of options also appears, providing a list of metadata keys that are present in the majority of the entries within the results list, the utility of which will become apparent below.

The true functionality of the system arises from "then by" sorting. When desired, a child can specify up to three levels of sorting hierarchy. This feature shouldn't be overlooked, since it serves as an extraordinarily powerful means of viewing and organizing data hierarchically, even when no hard hierarchy exists. In fact, when used to its full advantage this approach can be more useful than a hard hierarchy, since the order of the hierarchy can be adjusted dynamically to suit the child's needs at the time. And, in conjunction with the intelligently compiled list of metadata keys on which to sort, children can not only find what they're looking for, but can browse through their journal in any way that suits them. Consider, for instance, that a child filters her journal so that all of her music appears in the results. Since nearly every song Object in her Journal has metadata keys for artist, album, track, and year, she could sort by these keys to arrange her music collection for browsing. Sorting by artist, then album, then track she can obtain a traditional view of her music. In order to view a discography for each artist, on the other hand, she could sort by artist, then by album, then by track. Or, to see a timeline of her music, she could sort by year, then by artist.

This powerful sorting method isn't necessarily limited solely to a bunch of songs, or pictures, or other specific type of data. Since many forms of metadata will apply across Object types, the possibilities are nearly limitless.

암묵적 버저닝 시스템

As mentioned before, the laptops automatically save, or "keep", Objects in the Journal at regular intervals. This eliminates the need for the children to constantly worry about saving, and reduces the chances that an unexpected circumstance will cause data loss. These individual keep events are incremental, meaning that the changes within the file are kept in a nondestructive manner. Therefore, the Journal not only stores Objects as children create them, but also keeps track of the revision history for each one. This allows the Journal to function as a versioned filesystem.

The space limitations on the laptop cause some concern with the mention of revision history. However, the differences between revisions will often be small. Additionally, Objects with large revision histories provide one easy way for the journal to regain valuable space when memory becomes tight, since it can collapse the history, storing only every few automatic revisions in addition to those explicitly kept by the child.

Copias Automáticas y Recuperación


In most locations where laptops deploy, a nearby school equipped with a server will provide additional functionality when children brings their laptops within range. This server has one major implication for the Journal: backup. Due to limited storage space on the laptops, children will have to choose to erase older entries to make way for new ones. The automated backup system will ensure that, even once their creations leave their own laptops, they will remain available on the school server. This process will happen in the background, fully automatically, anytime the child comes within range and bandwidth allows. Her Journal will keep track of which entries have and have not yet been backed up, taking this into account when recommending items for removal.


The backup service provided by the server will allow several types of restoration, based upon the child's needs.

Full restore functionality provides a fail-safe for the children. Though the ruggedness of the laptops should minimize the need for a full restore, any event which causes permanent loss of any or all data on a laptop can be recovered from nearly completely from the backup files. These files also provide a means of restoring the child's settings and data should they for any reason ever need a new laptop. In practice, this is a temporal restoration, recovering all files stored on the backup server within a given time period from the present.

The backup server will also provide partial restores, which allows children to select individual objects and entries to recover. Any recovered items will appear as a new Journal entry on the date of recovery. This form of restoration will occur with much greater frequency, purposed mainly to restore an accidentally deleted entry from a week or so ago, while flexible enough to restore any entry ever backed up on the server.

In addition to these hard restoration methods which physically copy the data back onto the children's laptops, the server will also provide soft restore functionality, allowing children to browse through the backups on the server directly from within their Journals. Since this browsing functionality will integrate cleanly with the entries stored on their own laptops, the children will be able to search, filter, sort, and view anything they ever without having to think about the technicalities of the data's physical location. Apart from a visual indication within the entry, the experience of browsing through backups will be seamless. Using the temporary restore method, children can browse through their past creations, much as we might browse through a photo album. They will have full ability to resume any instance of an activity, to view its contents. A copy-on-write approach will be taken, so that if a child attempts to modify a temporarily restored item, it will behave identically to a partial restore for that Object, writing the modified revision into a new journal entry.