Raspbian is a derivative of Debian for the Raspberry Pi.
In relation to Sugar, Raspbian is a downstream distribution project that can be used to run Sugar.
See Debian for how to use Sugar on Raspbian.
You can download Activities/Turtle Art and use it on the normal desktop. You can either download it through the package manager (and get version 98):
sudo apt-get install sugar-turtleart-activity
Turtle art will be added to the Education section of the apps menu.
Or you could get the latest version using git:
git clone https://github.com/sugarlabs/activity-turtleart-gtk2.git turtleart cd turtleart
And use the following to start Turtle Art:
NOTE: you may encounter an error related to the summary field in the activity.info. If so, open the activity/activity.info file and move the summary field from the bottom of the file, to being the line below the title field
Sugarizer is a HTML5 version of Sugar. It has a basic journal and full web activity support.
You can configure Sugarizer to auto-start by setting your ~/.xinitrc to:
(Note: there are a few issues with the browser icons... but sugarizer works well)
Alternatively, you can download the Sugarizer client zip and have it locally on your pi.