Ivan Krstić has written about the problems of deploying XOs in countries without proper planning. OLPC has declared certain problems to be out of scope, to the extent that they don't even warn countries about the need for other resources for infrastructure (electricity and Internet, at least), teacher training, curriculum development, creation of a whole new generation of textbooks and content taking advantage of available processing power and software, and other matters.
Since OLPC won't even talk about it, and the countries have little or no idea what will be needed, a separate organization is needed to address these issues. OLPC says that it wants to find partners to consult with countries on these matters or provide such services themselves, but any actions in that direction are invisible to our community.
Earth Treasury proposes to be that organization.