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== Introduction ==
 
== Introduction ==
This page provides additional detail for loading '''[[Sugar on a Stick/Quandong|Quandong]]''', the most stable, released version of Sugar on a Stick (SoaS), available at [[Sugar on a Stick/Downloads]], onto a USB/SD flash storage device using GNU/Linux.
     −
: To explore a variety of '''experimental''' options for putting a [[What is Sugar?|Sugar]] image on a USB or SD flash drive under GNU/Linux, see the following pages:
+
The page [[Sugar on a Stick/Linux/Installation]] provides up-to-date and concise instructions for loading  the most recent released version of [[Sugar on a Stick]] (SoaS) onto a USB/SD flash storage device using GNU/Linux.
 +
 
 +
==livecd-iso-to-disk tool==
 +
 
 +
Before experimenting beyond the instructions in the link above, please read [[fedora:How to create and use Live USB]] for more background details. That page starts with Direct Write methods of creating a (non-persistent) Live USB system, and further down the page describes using the livecd-iso-to-disk tool which is the prefered method of making persistent Sugar on a Stick.
 +
 
 +
The reader should be aware that Ubuntu/Debian use a method to create a live USB system which is fundamentally different to Fedora's method, used by Sugar.
 +
 
 +
:''Quote from the above Fedora page''
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 +
: '''Issues using other Linux distributions'''
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 +
: Ubuntu and derivative Linux distributions have a usb-creator program similar to Live USB Creator. This does not work with Fedora ISO images, it silently rejects them. usb-creator requires the ISO to have a Debian layout, with a /.disk/info file and a casper directory. Do not attempt to use this utility to write a Fedora ISO image.
 +
 
 +
: The livecd-iso-to-disk script is not meant to be run from a non-Fedora system. Even if it happens to run and write a stick apparently successfully from some other distribution, the stick may well fail to boot. Use of livecd-iso-to-disk on any distribution other than Fedora is unsupported and not expected to work: please use an alternative method, such as the "direct write" methods described above.
 +
:''end Quote''
 +
 
 +
=== Persistence ===
 +
Persistence in the context of a live USB system, is the ability to save both system changes, including Software updates, and the user's work between sessions, that is after shutdown and reboot.
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 +
==Linux users, suggested methods ==
 +
 
 +
Linux users might consider reading the following pages for supported methods to install SoaS.
 +
 
 +
'''Users of Fedora and Red Hat derivitives:'''
 +
:[[Sugar on a Stick/Linux/Installation]]
 +
 
 +
'''Debian, Ubuntu, and derivitives, and other distros:'''
 +
 
 +
:Make your SoaS from within a Sugar Live OS environment, which is itself a Fedora system.
 +
 
 +
: '''Either''' Burn a Sugar.iso and follow the section of [[Sugar on a Stick/Installation]] entitled
 +
 
 +
:: "1. Burn a CD-ROM disc, boot from it, then run the script, ''livecd-iso-to-disk''"
 +
 
 +
: '''or''' create a Sugar image by dd or any of the methods on [[ Testing/Reports/Sugar_on_a_Stick_Persistence|this page]]. Then boot into the Live OS, to create SoaS from the running Live OS image.
   −
: [[Sugar on a Stick/Beta|SoaS test builds]] | [[Sugar on a Stick/Installation/OLPC|OLPC XO-1]] | [[Sugar on a Stick/Linux/openSUSE|openSUSE]] | [[Trisquel On A Sugar Toast|Trisquel]] | [[VirtualBox]] | [[VMware]] | [[Sugar on a Stick/Linux/Non-compressed Fedora|non-compressed Fedora]] | [[:Category:Live USB|Live USB: (all known portable Sugar distributions)]]
      
If you have questions, trouble, or feedback, please let us know on the [[{{TALKPAGENAMEE}}|discussion]] page. If you can improve these instructions, please edit the page and do so!
 
If you have questions, trouble, or feedback, please let us know on the [[{{TALKPAGENAMEE}}|discussion]] page. If you can improve these instructions, please edit the page and do so!
* See this reference for more background details: [[fedora:How to create and use Live USB]]
     −
== Load SoaS onto a stick using Fedora or Ubuntu ==
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==Experimental==
 +
 
 +
To explore a variety of experimental options for putting a [[What is Sugar?|Sugar]] image on a USB or SD flash drive under GNU/Linux, see the following pages:
 +
 
 +
[[Sugar on a Stick/Beta|SoaS test builds]] | [[Sugar on a Stick/Installation/OLPC|OLPC XO-1]] | [[Sugar on a Stick/Linux/openSUSE|openSUSE]] | [[Trisquel On A Sugar Toast|Trisquel]] | [[VirtualBox]] | [[VMware]] | [[Sugar on a Stick/Linux/Non-compressed Fedora|non-compressed Fedora]] | [[:Category:Live USB|Live USB: (all known portable Sugar distributions)]]
   −
This is known to work in Fedora and Ubuntu.
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=== Load SoaS further insight ===
 +
 
 +
This is known to work in Fedora and has been reported to work in Ubuntu.
    
First, download a SoaS {{Code|.iso}} image from  http://spins.fedoraproject.org/soas/#downloads, then return here.
 
First, download a SoaS {{Code|.iso}} image from  http://spins.fedoraproject.org/soas/#downloads, then return here.
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* Plug in a 2 GB or larger USB stick into your computer.
 
* Plug in a 2 GB or larger USB stick into your computer.
 
* Mount the 'SoaS.iso' image to reach the onboard livecd-iso-to-disk installation script:
 
* Mount the 'SoaS.iso' image to reach the onboard livecd-iso-to-disk installation script:
: {{Code|sudo mkdir /media/soas/}}
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: {{Code|sudo mkdir /run/soas/}}
: {{Code|sudo mount /path/to/Fedora-17-x86_64-Live-SoaS.iso /media/soas/}}
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: {{Code|sudo mount /path/to/Fedora-Live-SoaS-x86_64-20-1 /run/soas/}}
:: (mount: warning: /media/soas/ seems to be mounted read-only.)
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:: (mount: /dev/loop0 is write-protected, mounting read-only)
 
* Change the working directory to the LiveOS folder on the SoaS.iso mount:
 
* Change the working directory to the LiveOS folder on the SoaS.iso mount:
: {{Code|cd /media/soas/LiveOS}}
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: {{Code|cd /run/soas/LiveOS}}
 
* Execute {{Code|./livecd-iso-to-disk --help}} for usage details. (The file is already executable.)
 
* Execute {{Code|./livecd-iso-to-disk --help}} for usage details. (The file is already executable.)
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/dev/sda2    ext4    20G  12G  7.5G  61% /var/tmp
 
/dev/sda2    ext4    20G  12G  7.5G  61% /var/tmp
 
/dev/sda2    ext4    20G  12G  7.5G  61% /home
 
/dev/sda2    ext4    20G  12G  7.5G  61% /home
/dev/loop0 iso9660    509M 509M     0 100% /media/soas
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/dev/loop0 iso9660    668M 668M     0 100% /run/soas
 
/dev/sdc1    vfat    3.8G  4.0K  3.8G  1% /run/media/MyAccount/MyUSBdiscMountPoint
 
/dev/sdc1    vfat    3.8G  4.0K  3.8G  1% /run/media/MyAccount/MyUSBdiscMountPoint
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
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 +
Another way to find out the USB device node name on your system is issuing the command
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 +
    sudo fdisk -l
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and looking in the output for the disk that corresponds to the USB device, e.g., a disk described with a stanza like
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 +
    Disk /dev/sd'''?''': 1939 MB, 1939865600 bytes
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    150 heads, 42 sectors/track, 601 cylinders, total 3788800 sectors
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    Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
 +
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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    Disk identifier: 0x000e14bf
 +
   
 +
    Device Boot      Start        End      Blocks  Id  System
 +
    /dev/sd'''?'''1  *        2048    3784703    1891328    c  W95 FAT32 (LBA)
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 +
where '''?''' in /dev/sd'''?''' is (usually) a letter of the alphabet.
 +
 +
If you have only '''one''' storage device with 2 GB of nominal capacity, it will be easy to recognize the USB device in the fdisk output by looking at which device has (about) 2 GB of capacity. In the example above, "Disk /dev/sd'''?'''" reports to be as large as ''1939 MB'', that is almost 2 GB.
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 +
If you have '''more than one''' disk with about 2 GB of capacity, consider moving to a situation where you'll have only '''one''' device with 2 GB of capacity, because this will help out a lot in recognizing the drive correctly.
    
* Unmount the drive,<br>
 
* Unmount the drive,<br>
 
: {{Code|sudo umount /run/media/MyAccount/MyUSBdiscMountPoint}}
 
: {{Code|sudo umount /run/media/MyAccount/MyUSBdiscMountPoint}}
:: <small>(The {{Code|/run/media/MyAccount/}} path is the new, Fedora 17 standard mount point. Other operating systems may use {{Code|/media/MyMountPoint}}.)</small>
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:: <small>(The {{Code|/run/media/MyAccount/}} path is the new, standard Fedora mount point. Other operating systems may use {{Code|/media/MyMountPoint}}.)</small>
 
{{:Sugar on a Stick/Linux/bootable device}}
 
{{:Sugar on a Stick/Linux/bootable device}}
    
* Run {{Code|livecd-iso-to-disk}} as the root user, making sure to pass the correct USB device node name and to set overlay and home size appropriately, depending on the target USB device storage capacity.
 
* Run {{Code|livecd-iso-to-disk}} as the root user, making sure to pass the correct USB device node name and to set overlay and home size appropriately, depending on the target USB device storage capacity.
:<div style="padding: 1em; border: 1px dashed #2F6FAB; background-color: #FBFBFB; margin: 1em 0px 1em 0em; font-family: Courier;">./livecd-iso-to-disk --reset-mbr --overlay-size-mb '''500''' --home-size-mb '''900''' --delete-home --unencrypted-home '''/path/to/downloaded'''.iso /dev/sd'''?'''1</div>
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:<div style="padding: 1em; border: 1px dashed #2F6FAB; background-color: #FBFBFB; margin: 1em 0px 1em 0em; font-family: Courier;">./livecd-iso-to-disk --reset-mbr --overlay-size-mb '''500''' --home-size-mb '''800''' --unencrypted-home '''/path/to/downloaded'''.iso /dev/sd'''?'''1</div>
:: (In the above example, the {{Code|'''/path/to/downloaded'''.iso}} may be substituted with {{Code|/dev/loop0}}, as this is the loop device that the mount command chose.)
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: If the command fails telling you that /dev/sd'''?'''1 does not exist, try using the command for /dev/sd'''?''' (the name of the device) and not for /dev/sd'''?'''1 (the name of the partition), like this:
: {{Highlight|'''Note''': Additional USB or SD devices may be loaded from a running ''Sugar on a Stick'' image that was loaded with the livecd-iso-to-disk script (but not those installed by other methods) by running this command in the Terminal Activity as a root user:}}
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:<div style="padding: 1em; border: 1px dashed #2F6FAB; background-color: #FBFBFB; margin: 1em 0px 1em 0em; font-family: Courier;">/run/initramfs/live/LiveOS/livecd-iso-to-disk --reset-mbr --overlay-size-mb '''500''' --home-size-mb '''900''' --delete-home --unencrypted-home /run/initramfs/livedev /dev/sd'''?'''1</div>
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:<div style="padding: 1em; border: 1px dashed #2F6FAB; background-color: #FBFBFB; margin: 1em 0px 1em 0em; font-family: Courier;">./livecd-iso-to-disk --reset-mbr --overlay-size-mb '''500''' --home-size-mb '''800''' --unencrypted-home '''/path/to/downloaded'''.iso /dev/sd'''?'''</div>
: The ''livecd-iso-to-disk'' installation method has other advantages over the ''liveusb-creator'' method by allowing the creation of a separate,  persistent /home/liveuser folder with the <tt>--home-size-mb ''NNN''</tt> option. This feature avoids consumption of the write-once persistent overlay for Activity storage (see [[LiveOS image]]) and allows one to update the OS image while keeping the user files (by running the script against your existing installation but <u>leaving out</u> the --home-size-mb NNN option).
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::* The {{Code|--delete-home}} option is used to avoid an error message while requesting both a new home (with {{Code|--home-size-mb}}) and a persistent home (indirectly with {{Code|--unencrypted-home}}). You wouldn't use the --delete-home option on an upgrade of the operation system only.
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: If the command fails returning a complaint about the filesystem not being mounted, '''and''' you can afford to '''loose all data on the USB device''', you can try reformatting the USB device filesystem:
:Depending on the size of your USB stick, you may have to decrease {{Code|--overlay-size-mb}} and {{Code|--home-size-mb}} values (for example, for a 2 GB stick, use 500 for the overlay and 900 for the home folder).
+
 
:: If you have sufficient capacity on your target device, and format it with an ext[234] filesystem to overcome the 2048-MB fat32 file size limit, you may avoid the SquashFS compression by including the {{Code|--skipcompress}} option in the script command line.
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:* mount the USB device (e.g., by unplugging and re-inserting it),
<!--:* If you get an error about udevinfo, you have the new version of udev where "udevadm info" is the proper command.
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:* repeat the steps for learning its device name (there can be situations when the device name has changed!)
:*:Create an executable file called udevinfo somewhere in your path with the following contents:
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:* issue the command with the '''{{Code|--format --msdos}}''' options, like this:
:::{{Code|#!/bin/bash}}<br>
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{{Note/warning|Warning|The command described here will ask for a confirmation and will '''destroy''' all pre-existing data on your USB device.<br>
:::<code>udevadm info $*</code> -->
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See also [[olpc:How_to_Damage_a_FLASH_Storage_Device|How to Damage a FLASH Storage Device]] for a discussion of why using the factory format is preferred.}}
 +
::<div style="padding: 1em; border: 1px dashed #2F6FAB; background-color: #FBFBFB; margin: 1em 0px 1em 0em; font-family: Courier;">./livecd-iso-to-disk --reset-mbr '''--format --msdos''' --overlay-size-mb '''500''' --home-size-mb '''800''' --unencrypted-home '''/path/to/downloaded'''.iso /dev/sd'''?'''</div>
 +
 
 +
: {{Highlight|In the above examples, the {{Code|'''/path/to/downloaded'''.iso}} may be substituted with {{Code|/dev/loop0}}, as this is the loop device that the mount command chose.}}
 +
 
 +
{{Note/note|Note| Additional USB or SD devices may be loaded from a running ''Sugar on a Stick'' image that was loaded with the livecd-iso-to-disk script (but not those installed by other methods) by running this command in the Terminal Activity as a root user:}}
 +
:<div style="padding: 1em; border: 1px dashed #2F6FAB; background-color: #FBFBFB; margin: 1em 0px 1em 0em; font-family: Courier;">/run/initramfs/live/LiveOS/livecd-iso-to-disk --reset-mbr --overlay-size-mb '''500''' --home-size-mb '''800''' --unencrypted-home /run/initramfs/livedev /dev/sd'''?'''1</div>
 +
 
 +
: The ''livecd-iso-to-disk'' installation method has other advantages over the ''liveusb-creator'' method by allowing the creation of a separate,  persistent /home/liveuser folder with the <tt>--home-size-mb ''NNN''</tt> option. This feature avoids consumption of the persistent overlay for Activity storage (see [[LiveOS image]]) and allows one to update the OS image while keeping the user files (by running the script against your existing installation but <u>leaving out</u> the --home-size-mb NNN option).
 +
::* A {{Code|--delete-home}} option is available to avoid an error message while requesting both a new home (with {{Code|--home-size-mb}}) when there is already a persistent home on the device). You wouldn't use the --delete-home option on an upgrade of the operating system only.
 +
:Depending on the size of your USB stick, you may have to decrease {{Code|--overlay-size-mb}} and {{Code|--home-size-mb}} values (for example, for a 2 GB stick, use 500 for the overlay and 800 for the home folder).
 +
:: If you have sufficient capacity on your target device, and format it with an ext[234] filesystem to overcome the 4096-MB fat32 file size limit, you may avoid the SquashFS compression by including the {{Code|--skipcompress}} option in the script command line.
 
:* Watch out for errors in the output of the script, the script seems to ignore them! (and say all is fine on the last line).
 
:* Watch out for errors in the output of the script, the script seems to ignore them! (and say all is fine on the last line).
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<pre>
 
<pre>
[LiveOS]$ sudo ./livecd-iso-to-disk --reset-mbr --overlay-size-mb 500 --home-size-mb 900 --delete-home --unencrypted-home /media/SoaS/Fedora-17-x86_64-Live-SoaS.iso /dev/sdc1
+
[LiveOS]$ sudo ./livecd-iso-to-disk --reset-mbr --overlay-size-mb 500 --home-size-mb 800 --unencrypted-home /home/MyAccount/Downloads/Fedora-Live-SoaS-x86_64-20-1.iso /dev/sdc1
 
Verifying image...
 
Verifying image...
/media/SoaS/Fedora-17-x86_64-Live-SoaS.iso:   470134baa7e48085595243e53b55d41e
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/home/MyAccount/Downloads/Fedora-Live-SoaS-x86_64-20-1.iso:   b0a9414ff7eb79b680d5c86440e19587
Fragment sums: 7de3e14f3d5aa991343fa35bdfe3a1db59d578db95a844a63d22de789de1
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Fragment sums: 9bfe23577651c88dcfb78c76ac3a28a5c53eead4561e3bdc5921b8b2e748
 
Fragment count: 20
 
Fragment count: 20
 
Press [Esc] to abort check.
 
Press [Esc] to abort check.
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Copying live image to target device.
 
Copying live image to target device.
 
squashfs.img
 
squashfs.img
  512344064 100%   43.04MB/s    0:00:11 (xfer#1, to-check=0/1)
+
    630,784,000 100%   1.96MB/s    0:05:06 (xfr#1, to-chk=0/1)
 
  −
sent 512406681 bytes  received 31 bytes  44557105.39 bytes/sec
  −
total size is 512344064  speedup is 1.00
   
osmin.img
 
osmin.img
        8192 100%    0.00kB/s    0:00:00 (xfer#1, to-check=0/1)
+
          8,192 100%    0.00kB/s    0:00:00 (xfr#1, to-chk=0/1)
 
  −
sent 8265 bytes  received 31 bytes  16592.00 bytes/sec
  −
total size is 8192  speedup is 0.99
   
Updating boot config file
 
Updating boot config file
 
Initializing persistent overlay file
 
Initializing persistent overlay file
 
500+0 records in
 
500+0 records in
 
500+0 records out
 
500+0 records out
524288000 bytes (524 MB) copied, 5.1728 s, 101 MB/s
+
524288000 bytes (524 MB) copied, 216.717 s, 2.4 MB/s
 
Initializing persistent /home
 
Initializing persistent /home
900+0 records in
+
800+0 records in
900+0 records out
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800+0 records out
943718400 bytes (944 MB) copied, 152.195 s, 6.2 MB/s
+
838860800 bytes (839 MB) copied, 344.643 s, 2.4 MB/s
 
Formatting unencrypted /home
 
Formatting unencrypted /home
mke2fs 1.42.3 (14-May-2012)
+
mke2fs 1.42.8 (20-Jun-2013)
 
Filesystem label=
 
Filesystem label=
 
OS type: Linux
 
OS type: Linux
Line 111: Line 176:  
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
 
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
 
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
 
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
57600 inodes, 230400 blocks
+
51296 inodes, 204800 blocks
11520 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
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10240 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
 
First data block=0
 
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=239075328
+
Maximum filesystem blocks=209715200
8 block groups
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7 block groups
 
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
 
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
7200 inodes per group
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7328 inodes per group
 
Superblock backups stored on blocks:  
 
Superblock backups stored on blocks:  
32768, 98304, 163840, 229376
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32768, 98304, 163840
    
Allocating group tables: done                             
 
Allocating group tables: done                             
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Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
 
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
   −
tune2fs 1.42.3 (14-May-2012)
+
tune2fs 1.42.8 (20-Jun-2013)
 
Setting maximal mount count to -1
 
Setting maximal mount count to -1
 
Setting interval between checks to 0 seconds
 
Setting interval between checks to 0 seconds

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