VirtualBox/Preparing a disk image

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LiveOS image

Below are instructions for preparing a VirtualBox disk image from a SoaS iso image file. The process parallels the compressed LiveOS image used on Live CD and Live USB installations.


(Note: The SoaS .iso distribution also contains an installer for full, uncompressed, hard disc images of Fedora with the Sugar graphical interface. See Uncompressed, hard disc image below for instructions.)

Installing SoaS .iso image

  1. Create a new VM, choose a name, such as Mirabelle
  2. Choose Linux for the Operating System and Version Fedora (use 64 bit, if available)
  3. Choose Base Memory Size: 256 MB to match an XO-1, 512 or 1024 MB to match an XO-1.5
  4. Create a new virtual hard disk image with dynamically expanding storage of 2 GB
  5. Finish.
  6. Download the lastest SoaS, http://spins.fedoraproject.org/soas/#downloads, for Fedora 13.
  7. Mount the SoaS .iso image file as a CD-ROM in the newly created VM.
  8. Change the Network Attached to: Bridged Adapter (This allows for networking with the host computer.)
  9. Start the VM
  10. Enter an account name and startup Sugar.
  11. Open Terminal.
  12. su -
  13. parted
  14. mklabel msdos
    This makes a partition table.
  15. mkpart primary ext2 0 2048
    You will receive this message:
    Warning: The resulting partition is not properly aligned for best performance.
    Ignore/Cancel?
    Enter (I)gnore
  16. toggle 1 boot
  17. quit
  18. mke2fs /dev/sda1
  19. /LiveOS/livecd-iso-to-disk --overlay-size-mb 1024 --home-size-mb 200 --delete-home --unencrypted-home /dev/sr0 /dev/sda1
    (for earlier versions of SoaS
    Blueberry - use /media/soas-2-blueberry/LiveOS/livecd-iso-to-disk
    Strawberry - use /mnt/live/LiveOS/livecd-iso-to-disk)
    <Terminal log>
    [root@localhost ~]# parted
    GNU Parted 2.1
    Using /dev/sda
    Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.
    (parted) mklabel msdos                                                    
    (parted) mkpart primary ext2 0 2048
    Warning: The resulting partition is not properly aligned for best performance.
    Ignore/Cancel? I                                                          
    (parted) toggle 1 boot                                                    
    (parted) quit                                                             
    Information: You may need to update /etc/fstab.                           
    
    [root@localhost ~]# mke2fs /dev/sda1
    mke2fs 1.41.10 (10-Feb-2009)
    Filesystem label=
    OS type: Linux
    Block size=4096 (log=2)
    Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
    Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
    125184 inodes, 500000 blocks
    25000 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
    First data block=0
    Maximum filesystem blocks=515899392
    16 block groups
    32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
    7824 inodes per group
    Superblock backups stored on blocks: 
        32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912
    
    Writing inode tables: done                            
    Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
    
    This filesystem will be automatically checked every 36 mounts or
    180 days, whichever comes first.  Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
    [root@localhost ~]#
    [root@localhost ~]# /LiveOS/livecd-iso-to-disk --overlay-size-mb 1024 --home-size-mb 200 --delete-home --unencrypted-home /dev/live /dev/sda1
    Verifying image...
    /dev/sr0:   0ce28e3947106fd37bab9317abf09938
    Fragment sums: a3c6e5fd5fba11d2b4da71771e8732b63bcb62b841971f7f39ab5c187f64
    Fragment count: 20
    Checking: 100.0%
    
    The media check is complete, the result is: PASS.
    
    It is OK to use this media.
    Copying live image to USB stick
    Updating boot config file
    Initializing persistent overlay file
    0+0 records in
    0+0 records out
    0 bytes (0 B) copied, 0.000150187 s, 0.0 kB/s
    Initializing persistent /home
    0+0 records in
    0+0 records out
    0 bytes (0 B) copied, 0.0039562 s, 0.0 kB/s
    Formatting unencrypted /home
    mke2fs 1.41.10 (10-Feb-2009)
    Filesystem label=
    OS type: Linux
    Block size=1024 (log=0)
    Fragment size=1024 (log=0)
    Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
    51200 inodes, 204800 blocks
    10240 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
    First data block=1
    Maximum filesystem blocks=67371008
    25 block groups
    8192 blocks per group, 8192 fragments per group
    2048 inodes per group
    Superblock backups stored on blocks: 
        8193, 24577, 40961, 57345, 73729
    
    Writing inode tables: done                            
    Creating journal (4096 blocks): done
    Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
    
    This filesystem will be automatically checked every 26 mounts or
    180 days, whichever comes first.  Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
    tune2fs 1.41.10 (10-Feb-2009)
    Setting maximal mount count to -1
    Setting interval between checks to 0 seconds
    Installing boot loader
    /media/usbdev.XB8shz/syslinux is device /dev/sda1
    USB stick set up as live image!
    
    • the --overlay-size-mb NNN and --home-size-mb NNN options creates space for persistence of changes on the disk; otherwise, a liveOS disk is read-only. See LiveOS image.

    The following optional parameters seem to be incompatible with soas-1-strawberry and soas-2-blueberry released versions. (The script completes successfully, but the virtual machine startup process has trouble finding the home directory and fails to complete.)
    • the --home-size-mb NNN option creates space for file storage in the /home/liveuser folder. (In the case where you you want to update the LiveOS image while keeping the user files, skip the new disk creation and parted steps, leave out the --home-size-mb NNN option at this step, and continue on.)
    • the --unencrypted-home option prevents password protection and encryption on the /home/liveuser folder. This releaves the overhead on the compressed SquashFS, and should be more robust to file system failures (outside of security).
    • the --delete-home option is used to avoid an error message while requesting both a new home (with --home-size-mb) and a persistent home (with --unencrypted-home). (You wouldn't use this option for the LiveOS upgrade case.)
  1. shutdown -h now

Installing VirtualBox Guest Additions

The VirtualBox Guest Additions requires installing DKMS and compiling virtual device drivers for the Linux kernel.

  1. Unmount CD/DVD in VirtualBox settings, select 'Empty' for the CD/DVD device under 'Attributes'
  2. Start the virtual machine
  3. Open Terminal
  4. su -
  1. Determine the kernel version,
    uname -a
    Linux localhost.localdomain 2.6.33.3-85.fc13.i686 #1 SMP Thu May 6 18:44:12 UTC 2010 i686 i686 i386 GNU/Linux
  2. For SoaS-Mirabelle, the kernel is Linux-2.6.33.3-85.fc13, so specific kernel-headers and kernel-devel are needed:

    yum install kernel-headers-2.6.33.3-85.fc13 kernel-devel-2.6.33.3-85.fc13 dkms gcc
    (Other dependencies will be called into the installation.)
    <Successful Terminal log from 16 Aug 2010 with Fedora 32 bit>
    [root@localhost ~]# yum install kernel-devel-2.6.33.3-85.fc13 kernel-headers-2.6.33.3-85.fc13 dkms gcc
    Loaded plugins: presto, refresh-packagekit
    Setting up Install Process
    Resolving Dependencies
    --> Running transaction check
    ---> Package dkms.noarch 0:2.1.0.1-1.fc12 set to be updated
    ---> Package gcc.i686 0:4.4.4-10.fc13 set to be updated
    --> Processing Dependency: cpp = 4.4.4-10.fc13 for package: gcc-4.4.4-10.fc13.i686
    --> Processing Dependency: libgomp = 4.4.4-10.fc13 for package: gcc-4.4.4-10.fc13.i686
    --> Processing Dependency: libgcc >= 4.4.4-10.fc13 for package: gcc-4.4.4-10.fc13.i686
    --> Processing Dependency: cloog-ppl >= 0.15 for package: gcc-4.4.4-10.fc13.i686
    --> Processing Dependency: glibc-devel >= 2.2.90-12 for package: gcc-4.4.4-10.fc13.i686
    ---> Package kernel-devel.i686 0:2.6.33.3-85.fc13 set to be installed
    ---> Package kernel-headers.i686 0:2.6.33.3-85.fc13 set to be updated
    --> Running transaction check
    ---> Package cloog-ppl.i686 0:0.15.7-1.fc12 set to be updated
    --> Processing Dependency: libppl.so.7 for package: cloog-ppl-0.15.7-1.fc12.i686
    --> Processing Dependency: libppl_c.so.2 for package: cloog-ppl-0.15.7-1.fc12.i686
    ---> Package cpp.i686 0:4.4.4-10.fc13 set to be updated
    ---> Package glibc-devel.i686 0:2.12-3 set to be updated
    --> Processing Dependency: glibc = 2.12-3 for package: glibc-devel-2.12-3.i686
    --> Processing Dependency: glibc-headers = 2.12-3 for package: glibc-devel-2.12-3.i686
    --> Processing Dependency: glibc-headers for package: glibc-devel-2.12-3.i686
    ---> Package libgcc.i686 0:4.4.4-10.fc13 set to be updated
    ---> Package libgomp.i686 0:4.4.4-10.fc13 set to be updated
    --> Running transaction check
    --> Processing Dependency: glibc = 2.12-1 for package: glibc-common-2.12-1.i686
    ---> Package glibc.i686 0:2.12-3 set to be updated
    ---> Package glibc-headers.i686 0:2.12-3 set to be updated
    ---> Package ppl.i686 0:0.10.2-10.fc12 set to be updated
    --> Running transaction check
    ---> Package glibc-common.i686 0:2.12-3 set to be updated
    --> Finished Dependency Resolution
    
    Dependencies Resolved
    
    =================================================================================================
     Package                  Arch             Version                       Repository         Size
    =================================================================================================
    Installing:
     dkms                     noarch           2.1.0.1-1.fc12                fedora             95 k
     gcc                      i686             4.4.4-10.fc13                 updates           8.1 M
     kernel-devel             i686             2.6.33.3-85.fc13              fedora            6.3 M
     kernel-headers           i686             2.6.33.3-85.fc13              fedora            760 k
    Installing for dependencies:
     cloog-ppl                i686             0.15.7-1.fc12                 fedora             81 k
     cpp                      i686             4.4.4-10.fc13                 updates           3.4 M
     glibc-devel              i686             2.12-3                        updates           960 k
     glibc-headers            i686             2.12-3                        updates           599 k
     ppl                      i686             0.10.2-10.fc12                fedora            1.1 M
    Updating for dependencies:
     glibc                    i686             2.12-3                        updates           4.3 M
     glibc-common             i686             2.12-3                        updates            14 M
     libgcc                   i686             4.4.4-10.fc13                 updates           103 k
     libgomp                  i686             4.4.4-10.fc13                 updates           109 k
    
    Transaction Summary
    =================================================================================================
    Install       9 Package(s)
    Upgrade       4 Package(s)
    
    Total download size: 40 M
    Is this ok [y/N]: y
    Downloading Packages:
    Setting up and reading Presto delta metadata
    updates/prestodelta                                                       |  87 kB     00:18     
    fedora/prestodelta                                                        |  414 B     00:00     
    Processing delta metadata
    Package(s) data still to download: 40 M
    (1/13): cloog-ppl-0.15.7-1.fc12.i686.rpm                                  |  81 kB     00:06 
    (2/13): cpp-4.4.4-10.fc13.i686.rpm                                        | 3.4 MB     01:47     
    (3/13): dkms-2.1.0.1-1.fc12.noarch.rpm                                    |  95 kB     00:09     
    (4/13): gcc-4.4.4-10.fc13.i686.rpm                                        | 8.1 MB     04:06     
    (5/13): glibc-2.12-3.i686.rpm                                             | 4.3 MB     01:50     
    (6/13): glibc-common-2.12-3.i686.rpm                                      |  14 MB     04:43     
    (7/13): glibc-devel-2.12-3.i686.rpm                                       | 960 kB     00:22     
    (8/13): glibc-headers-2.12-3.i686.rpm                                     | 599 kB     00:15     
    (9/13): kernel-devel-2.6.33.3-85.fc13.i686.rpm                            | 6.3 MB     03:25     
    (10/13): kernel-headers-2.6.33.3-85.fc13.i686.rpm                         | 760 kB     00:24     
    (11/13): libgcc-4.4.4-10.fc13.i686.rpm                                    | 103 kB     00:05     
    (12/13): libgomp-4.4.4-10.fc13.i686.rpm                                   | 109 kB     00:04     
    (13/13): ppl-0.10.2-10.fc12.i686.rpm                                      | 1.1 MB     00:26     
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total                                                             32 kB/s |  40 MB     21:10     
    Running rpm_check_debug
    Running Transaction Test
    Transaction Test Succeeded
    Running Transaction
      Installing     : kernel-devel-2.6.33.3-85.fc13.i686                                       1/17 
      Installing     : kernel-headers-2.6.33.3-85.fc13.i686                                     2/17 
      Updating       : libgcc-4.4.4-10.fc13.i686                                                3/17 
      Installing     : dkms-2.1.0.1-1.fc12.noarch                                               4/17 
      Updating       : glibc-2.12-3.i686                                                        5/17 
      Updating       : glibc-common-2.12-3.i686                                                 6/17 
      Updating       : libgomp-4.4.4-10.fc13.i686                                               7/17 
      Installing     : ppl-0.10.2-10.fc12.i686                                                  8/17 
      Installing     : cloog-ppl-0.15.7-1.fc12.i686                                             9/17 
      Installing     : cpp-4.4.4-10.fc13.i686                                                  10/17 
      Installing     : glibc-headers-2.12-3.i686                                               11/17 
      Installing     : glibc-devel-2.12-3.i686                                                 12/17 
      Installing     : gcc-4.4.4-10.fc13.i686                                                  13/17 
      Cleanup        : libgomp-4.4.4-2.fc13.i686                                               14/17 
      Cleanup        : glibc-common-2.12-1.i686                                                15/17 
      Cleanup        : glibc-2.12-1.i686                                                       16/17 
      Cleanup        : libgcc-4.4.4-2.fc13.i686                                                17/17 
    
    Installed:
      dkms.noarch 0:2.1.0.1-1.fc12                   gcc.i686 0:4.4.4-10.fc13                        
      kernel-devel.i686 0:2.6.33.3-85.fc13           kernel-headers.i686 0:2.6.33.3-85.fc13          
    
    Dependency Installed:
      cloog-ppl.i686 0:0.15.7-1.fc12     cpp.i686 0:4.4.4-10.fc13      glibc-devel.i686 0:2.12-3    
      glibc-headers.i686 0:2.12-3        ppl.i686 0:0.10.2-10.fc12    
    
    Dependency Updated:
      glibc.i686 0:2.12-3              glibc-common.i686 0:2.12-3     libgcc.i686 0:4.4.4-10.fc13    
      libgomp.i686 0:4.4.4-10.fc13    
    
    Complete!
    

  3. In the VirtualBox Guest 'Devices Menu', select 'Install Guest Additions...'
  4. mkdir /mnt/cdrom
  5. mount /dev/sr0 /mnt/cdrom/
  6. cd /mnt/cdrom/
  7. ./VBoxLinuxAdditions-x86.run

    You may check the consumption status of the overlay by executing,
    • dmsetup status
    reveals that 953440/2097152 (512-byte sectors) or 448 MB of the 1024 MB overlay file has been consumed by the installation process
    • If upgrading from one VirtualBox version to another, start with fresh virtual disks and machines built with the new versions to avoid breakage.
  8. reboot
    <Terminal log:>
    [root@localhost ~]# mkdir /mnt/cdrom/
    [root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/sr0 /mnt/cdrom/
    mount: block device /dev/sr0 is write-protected, mounting read-only
    [root@localhost ~]# cd /mnt/cdrom/
    [root@localhost cdrom]# ./VBoxLinuxAdditions-x86.run 
    Verifying archive integrity... All good.
    Uncompressing VirtualBox 3.2.8 Guest Additions for Linux........
    VirtualBox Guest Additions installer
    Building the VirtualBox Guest Additions kernel modules
    Building the main Guest Additions module                   [  OK  ]
    Building the shared folder support module                  [  OK  ]
    Building the OpenGL support module                         [  OK  ]
    Doing non-kernel setup of the Guest Additions              [  OK  ]
    Starting the VirtualBox Guest Additions                    [  OK  ]
    Installing the Window System drivers
    Installing X.Org Server 1.8 modules                        [  OK  ]
    Setting up the Window System to use the Guest Additions    [  OK  ]
    You may need to restart the hal service and the Window System (or just restart
    the guest system) to enable the Guest Additions.
    
    Installing graphics libraries and desktop services componen[  OK  ]
    
    [root@localhost cdrom]# dmsetup status
    live-osimg-min: 0 8388608 snapshot 2344/2344 24
    live-rw: 0 8388608 snapshot 953440/2097152 3720
    

Configure Screen

If you want to match the 16 bpp XO screen and a particular display size, you may

  1. Edit /etc/X11/xorg.conf to match the following section:
    • 832x624 - matches default XO display proportions
    • 1200x900 - XO reflective resolution
# VirtualBox generated configuration file
# based on /etc/X11/xorg.conf.

Section "Monitor"
  Identifier   "Monitor[0]"
  ModelName    "VirtualBox Virtual Output"
  VendorName   "Sun Microsystems Inc"
EndSection

Section "Device"
  BoardName    "VirtualBox Graphics"
  Driver       "vboxvideo"
  Identifier   "Device[0]"
  VendorName   "Sun Microsystems Inc"
EndSection

Section "Screen"
  Identifier   "Screen[0]"
  Device       "Device[0]"
  Monitor      "Monitor[0]"
  DefaultDepth 16
  SubSection "Display"
    Depth      16
    Modes      "832x624" "1200x900" "1024x768" "800x600"
  EndSubSection
EndSection

Clear user data

Finally,

  1. Open Terminal
  2. Terminal
  3. rm -rf ~/.sugar (if distributing image)
  4. su -
  5. shutdown -h now
  6. Now you can share the VDI file.

Backup discs

It would be wise to maintain a clone of your virtual disk image to restart if the working copy is damaged:

  1. From host command line (Windows cmd, or Linux terminal) See VirtualBox Help section 8.14.
    • VBoxManage clonehd <uuid>|<filename> <outputfile> [-format VDI|VMDK|VHD|RAW|<other>] [-remember]
  2. Reclone any virtual hard disks you would like to archive.

SSH connections

To enable SSH communications, we need to permit no passwords (to match the default Sugar configuration) in the ssh daemon configuration:

  1. in Terminal,
  2. su -
  3. vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    1. [add] PermitEmptyPasswords yes
    2.  :wq <Enter>
  4. service sshd restart

One may also supply a password for the root user:

  1. su -
  2. passwd
    Changing password for user root.
    New password:
    Retype new password:
    passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.


Uncompressed, hard disc image

Start VirtualBox (version 3.2.10 used here).
  1. Click NEW "Welcome to New Virtual Machine Wizard"
  2. <Next> fill out: Name (soas-i386-20101025)  ; Operating system(Linux); Version (Fedora)
  3. <Next> Base Memory Size
  4. <Next> Create new hard disk
  5. <Next> Storage Type (Dynamically expanding storage)
  6. <Next> Size (8.00 GB)
  7. <Finish>
Back on main Oracle VM VirtualBox screen
  1. Settings/Storage (CD Image0)CD/DVD Device: (Select your CD Host Drive-(sr0) with CD inserted
  2. <OK>
Start
SoaS will boot and run Sugar SoaS
Enter Name color
Enter Password ONE TIME then cancel next 6 times
Start Sugar-Terminal
su
liveinst
(Anaconda starts) Do normal HD install: Basic Storage Devices/ Reinitalize all/Host/TZ/Root Password/Use all Space/ Write Changes to Disk/ Install works to Completion.
"Congratulations, your Fedora Installation is complete" <Close> Quit sugar-terminal; Shutdown.
Back on main Oracle VM VirtualBox screen

Firstboot of new Virtual Machine

Settings/Storage; Host Drive: change to empty (You can also change boot order in Systems, if needed.)
Start HD goes to firstboot (Answer questions); then to gdm login, then to Sugar. Click to Change Color_____ (hit <Back> to change name)

Export your Appliance

File/Export Appliance (select soas-i386-20101025)<next> fill in Settings if you want to; <next> Export settings <Finish>

Congratulations, you have just created an importable/exportable appliance.