Development Team/Almanac/Code Snippets

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english | 日本語 HowTo [ID# 78459]  +/-  


The Sugar Almanac also has lots of code snippets.

Smooth animation

PyGTK/Smooth_Animation_with_PyGTK

WebKit WebView

from gi.repository import WebKit
from gi.repository import Gtk

WINDOW_WIDTH, WINDOW_HEIGHT = 700, 500

# create window:

def _destroy_cb(widget, data=None):
    Gtk.main_quit()

window = Gtk.Window()
window.resize(WINDOW_WIDTH, WINDOW_HEIGHT)
window.connect("destroy", _destroy_cb)
window.show()

# create and add scrolled window:
s = Gtk.ScrolledWindow()
window.add(s)
s.show()

# create and add webview:
v = WebKit.WebView()
s.add(v)
v.show()

# load google page:
v.load_uri('http://wiki.laptop.org')

Gtk.main()

Toolbar

Toolbar icons

Setting a standard Sugar toolbar.

from sugar.activity import activity
...
class MyActivity(activity.Activity):
...
   toolbox = activity.ActivityToolbox(self)
   self.set_toolbox(toolbox)
   toolbox.show()

Adding a custom toolbar and icons.

from sugar.graphics.toolbutton import ToolButton
from sugar.activity import activity
...
class MyActivity(activity.Activity):
...
   mytoolbox = gtk.Toolbar()
   helpbut = ToolButton('help') #Stock help icon
   helpbut.set_tooltip(_("Get help"))
   helpbut.connect('clicked', self.help_button_pressed)
   mytoolbox.insert(helpbut, -1)
   helpbut.show()
   mytoolbox.show()

   toolbox = activity.ActivityToolbox(self)
   toolbox.add_toolbar("mytoolbar",mytoolbox)
   self.set_toolbox(toolbox)
   toolbox.show()

In addition to the standard icons in /usr/share/icons/sugar/scalable/ (eg, "go-next"), you can create additional icons by putting an svg in your activity's icons/ directory. E.g.,

icons/my-icon.svg

And then use it.

mybut = ToolButton('my-icon')# without extension

Files

This snippet shows how to get a path to files in the running Activity:

from sugar.activity import activity
bundle_path = activity.get_bundle_path()

This snippet shows how to get a path to an activity's writable directories (i.e. the SUGAR_ACTIVITY_ROOT environment variable; see also the activity DBus API):

class WebActivity(activity.Activity):
    def __init__(self, handle):
        activity.Activity.__init__(self, handle)
        temp_path = os.path.join(self.get_activity_root(), 'instance')

Images

target = ctx.get_target()
buf = target.create_similar(cairo.CONTENT_COLOR_ALPHA, w, h)
ctx.set_source_surface(buf, x, y)
ctx.paint()
width, height = handle.get_dimension_data()
  • Loading a JPEG file onto a surface:
pixbuf = gtk.gdk.pixbuf_new_from_file("foo.jpg")
ctx = # a cairo context
ctx.set_source_pixbuf(pixbuf, 0, 0)
ctx.paint()

libjpeg is said to be an alternative to using pixbuf. Which is better? Perhaps Sugar/HippoCanvas provides an easier way to do this?

Cairo image expansion is good quality, but expensive. Shrinking is fine and notably faster. So for images rendered large (ie, screen-size), you might want to start with a big image, rather than expanding a small one. A speed/space tradeoff. And use SVG instead if appropriate, of course. MitchellNCharity 10:37, 10 May 2007 (EDT)

Audio

import sys
sys.path.append('/usr/share/activities/Pippy.activity/sound')
from sound import *
playWave(sound='triangle')
audioOut()

Processes

Use Python's subprocess module.
Set the "exec" property of the activity.info file to your binary.

Not yet sorted

from sugar import profile

key = profile.get_pubkey()

# If you want a shorter key, you can hash that like:

from sugar import util

key_hash = util._sha_data(key)
hashed_key = util.printable_hash(key_hash)
  • Avoid memory exhaustion from large dead pygtk objects by using
import gc
    gc.collect()

Not all trash pygtk objects are garbage collected promptly. If you are throwing away large pixmaps, for instance, this can be deadly. gc.collect() forces a garbage collection pass.

Performance Tips

This section belongs on a different, as yet non-existent page. But a good organization for software development tips is currently unclear to me, so I'll stash this here for now. MitchellNCharity 14:05, 10 May 2007 (EDT)

  • ctx.stroke() several lines at once. stroke() currently has significant overhead. So it is faster to stroke several, than to stroke them individually. They need not be contiguous. MitchellNCharity 14:05, 10 May 2007 (EDT)

Old snippets which need to be overhauled

Toolbar

This snippet shows how an activity would have a toolbar with a button and a gtk.TextView widget embedded in a hippo Canvas:

import logging
import hippo
import gtk

from gettext import gettext as _

from sugar.activity import activity
from sugar.graphics.toolbar import Toolbar
from sugar.graphics.iconbutton import IconButton
from sugar.graphics.entry import Entry
from sugar.graphics.optionmenu import OptionMenu
from sugar.graphics.menu import MenuItem

class FooActivity(activity.Activity):

    _ACTION_ANYTHING = 1
    _ACTION_APPLES = 2
    _ACTION_ORANGES = 3

   def __init__(self, handle):
        activity.Activity.__init__(self, handle)

        vbox = hippo.CanvasBox()
        self.set_root(vbox)

        toolbar = Toolbar()
        vbox.append(toolbar)

        button = IconButton(icon_name='theme:stock-close')
        button.connect("activated", self._button_activated_cb)
        toolbar.append(button)

        entry = Entry()
        button.connect("activated", self._entry_activated_cb)
        toolbar.append(entry)

        option_menu = OptionMenu()
        option_menu.add_item(MenuItem(self._ACTION_ANYTHING, _('Anything')))
        option_menu.add_item(MenuItem(self._ACTION_APPLES, _('Apples'),
                                      'theme:stock-close'))
        option_menu.add_item(MenuItem(self._ACTION_ORANGES, _('Oranges')))
        option_menu.add_separator()
        toolbar.append(option_menu)

        text_view_widget = hippo.CanvasWidget()
        vbox.append(text_view_widget, hippo.PACK_EXPAND)

        text_view = gtk.TextView()
        text_view.get_buffer().set_text('Write here!', -1)
        text_view_widget.props.widget = text_view

    def _button_activated_cb(self, button):
        logging.debug('FooActivity._button_activated_cb')

    def _entry_activated_cb(self, entry):
        logging.debug('FooActivity._entry_activated_cb')
In build 443 (June '07), from sugar.graphics.entry import Entry yields ImportError: No module named entry. MitchellNCharity 19:52, 15 June 2007 (EDT)
And obsolete, now deleted code like sugar.graphics.toolbar is being used. Snippet needs to be overhauled. MitchellNCharity 18:04, 21 June 2007 (EDT)