The Open Access movement seeks to make scientific and other research available without restriction on the Internet. There is a growing trend to publishing journals, conference proceedings, and other peer-reviewed literature without requiring fees to access it, under Creative Commons licenses allowing for reuse with proper attribution. In 2010 it was estimated that about 20% of peer-reviewed material was available in at least one form of Open Access.
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The rationale for Open Access publishing is that the marginal cost of allowing one user to see and even download a journal paper or article is nearly unmeasurably small, and that fees for access hugely disadvantage researchers in developing countries, high-school students, and the general public. Many Open Access scientific publications ask the authors for a modest fee to cover some portion of their editorial, peer review, and publishing costs. It is suggested that all research grants include funding to cover fees for Open Access publication.
Even commercially published journals are adapting to this idea by allowing research papers to be accessed at no cost after a period of time, often six months after print and online publication.